La Niña Winters
in the Upper Mississippi River Valley

Jeff Boyne, NWS La Crosse, WI

What Is La Niña? Temperature
Precipitation
Snowfall
La Niña Affect
on Other Seasons

La Niña Intensity and its affect upon United States Temperatures & Precipitation

Since the 1949-50 winter, La Niñas have been ongoing during twenty-one meteorological winters (December through February).  La Niña strength greatly influences the temperatures across the United States.  During weak and moderate La Niñas, temperatures are typically cooler than normal across Alaska and from the Pacific Northwest east into the Upper Mississippi River Valley.  Meanwhile, warmer than normal temperatures are typically found across the southern United States and mid Atlantic States.  When a La Niña is strong, temperatures are typically warmer than normal across most of the eastern two thirds of the United States and cooler than normal along the west coast of the United States.

While temperatures in the United States are greatly influenced by La Niña's strength, precipitation typically is not.  During La Niñas, the southern United States is typically drier than normal.  Meanwhile, wetter than normal conditions are usually found across the Tennessee and Ohio River Valleys, and the Pacific Northwest.  The one exception is that during moderate La Niñas, a secondary area of wetter-than-normal conditions can be found from eastern Kansas northwest into the western Great Lakes.  This is due to the storm track being occasionally shifted further northwest from its typical track across the Tennessee and Ohio River Valleys.  This was the case during the 2007-08 winter when record seasonal snow (July 1 through June 30) fell across southern and eastern Wisconsin.

Below are the La Niña winters listed by strength and the temperature and precipitation anomalies they produced across the continental United States.

Weak La Niñas (Oceanic Niño Index or ONI from -0.5 to -0.9) occurred during the winters of 1956-57, 1961-62, 1964-65, 1967-68, 1971-72, 1974-75, 1983-84, 1995-96, and 2000-01.

Weak La Niña Temperature Anomalies Weak La Niña Precipitation Anomalies
Temperature Anomalies
Precipitation Anomalies

Moderate La Niñas (Oceanic Niño Index or ONI from -1.0 to -1.4) occurred during the winters of 1950-51, 1954-55, 1955-56, 1970-71, 1984-85, 2007-08, and 2010-11.

Moderate La Niña Temperature Anomalies Moderate La Niña Precipitation Anomalies
Temperature Anomalies Precipitation Anomalies

Strong La Niñas (Oceanic Niño Index or ONI of -1.5 or less) occurred during the winters of 1949-50, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1988-89, 1998-99, and 1999-2000.

Strong La Niña Temperature Anomalies
Strong La Niña Precipitation Anomalies
Temperature Anomalies
Precipitation Anomalies

Winter Temperatures in the Upper Mississippi River Valley

During weak to moderate La Niñas winters, temperatures typically average below normal across the Upper Mississippi River Valley.  Meanwhile, during strong La Niñas winters, temperatures typically average near to slightly above normal.  More details on the temperatures specifically at La Crosse, WI and Rochester, MN, can be found below.

La Crosse, WI

In La Crosse, WI, La Niñas tend to be colder than normal.  The overall average temperature during these winters was 18.4°F, which was 1.5°F colder than the long-term (1949-2011) average of 19.5°F.  Seasonal average temperatures for all La Niña events have ranged from 14.2°F (1962-63 and) to 25.3°F (1999-2000).

While there was not a strong statistical signal in the seasonal temperature average, the monthly data did show there was an increasing trend toward temperatures being colder than the long-term average as the winter progressed.  December had a nearly even split between above- and below-normal temperatures.  Meanwhile, sixty-two percent of Januarys and eighty-one percent of Februarys were colder than normal.  When compared to the long-term temperature averages, La Niña Decembers were 0.5°F colder than average (21.8°F), Januarys were 1.3°F colder than average (15.8°F), and Februarys were 1.6°F colder than average (21.1°F).

During these winters, the average maximum temperature was 1°F degree colder than the long-term average of 28.1°F.  The greatest frequency of below average maximum temperatures were in February (17 out of 21, 81%).  The maximum temperatures anomalies steadily increased through the winter.  During December, the maximum temperatures were 0.4°F colder than the long-term average (29.5°F).  This increased to 0.8°F colder in January and 1.4°F colder in February.

The average minimum temperature was 1.3°F colder than the long-term average of 10.9°F.  The greatest frequency of below average minimum temperatures were in January (14 our 21, 66.7%) and February (17 out of 21, 81%).  Just like the maximum temperatures, the minimum temperature anomalies steadily increased through the winter.  During December, the maximum temperatures were 0.7°F colder than the long-term average (29.5°F).  This increased to 1.6°F colder in January and 1.8°F colder in February.

La Crosse, WI Average Temperatures during La Nina Winters
La Niña Average
Winter
Temperatures
in La Crosse, WI

La Crosse, WI Average Maximum Temperatures during La Nina Winters

La Niña Average
Winter
Maximum Temperatures
in La Crosse, WI

La Crosse, WI Average MinimumTemperatures during La Nina Winters

La Niña Average
Winter
Minimum Temperatures
in La Crosse, WI

The table below provides a monthly breakdown of winter temperatures in La Crosse, WI during La Niña.
Breakdown of Monthly Temperatures in La Crosse, WI during La Niña Winters
Winter
Winter
(DJF)
ONI
Average Temperature
Winter
(DJF)
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
1949-1950
-1.7
20.3
24.6
15.8
20.6
1950-1951
-1.0
15.0
15.5
11.0
18.8
1954-1955
-1.0
20.0
24.4
17.2
18.2
1955-1956
-1.3
16.1
15.4
15.6
17.5
1956-1957
-0.5
20.5
24.6
12.3
24.9
1962-1963
-0.6
14.2
21.5
6.3
14.8
1964-1965
-0.8
14.2
17.5
11.0
14.0
1967-1968
-0.7
21.4
25.3
19.3
19.5
1970-1971
-1.3
14.5
19.4
7.4
17.0
1971-1972
-0.7
17.3
24.5
11.1
16.1
1973-1974
-1.9
18.7
18.9
18.0
19.1
1974-1975
-0.6
21.2
26.6
18.1
18.7
1975-1976
-1.6
21.8
23.7
13.1
29.0
1984-1985
-0.9
16.3
21.5
10.9
16.5
1988-1989
-1.7
19.8
21.8
24.2
12.8
1995-1996
-0.7
17.5
21.0
11.9
19.9
1998-1999
-1.4
24.6
29.1
14.3
31.0
1999-2000
-1.6
25.3
27.2
18.3
30.6
2000-2001
-0.6
15.2
8.7
20.6
16.3
2007-2008
-1.4
16.3
19.4
14.6
14.9
2010-2011
-1.3
16.9
 16.7
 14.1
20.2 
 
 
DJF
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
La Niña Average
18.4F
21.3F
14.5F
19.5F
1950-2010 Longterm Average
19.5F
21.8F
15.8F
21.1F
Difference from Longterm Average
-1.1F
-0.5F
-1.3F
-1.6F
# Below
12
(57.1%)
11
(52.3%)
13
(61.9%)
17
(81.0%)
# Above
9
(42.9%)
9
(42.9%)
7
(33.3%)
4
(19.0%)
# Same
0
(0%)
1
(4.8%)
1
(4.8%)
0
(0%)

Rochester, MN

In Rochester, MN, La Niña winters tend to be colder than normal (13 out of 21, 61.9%).  The average winter temperature was 15.5°F, which was 1.0°F colder than the long-term (1949-2011) average of 15.7°F.  Seasonal average temperatures have ranged from 11.2°F (1950-51) to 21.3°F (1999-2000).

While there was not a strong statistical signal in the seasonal temperature average, the monthly data did show there was an increasing trend toward temperatures being colder than the long-term average as the winter progressed.  Sixty-one percent (13 out of 21) of Decembers were warmer than the long-term average.  Meanwhile, sixty-two percent of Januarys and eighty-one percent of Februarys were colder than the long-term average.  When compared to the long-term temperature averages, La Niña Decembers were 0.2°F colder than average (18.6°F), Januarys were 1.1°F colder than average (11.7°F), and Februarys were 1.6°F colder than average (16.5°F).

During these winters, the average maximum temperature was 0.6°F degree colder than the long-term average of 24.1°F.  The greatest frequency of below average maximum temperatures were in February (17 out of 21, 81%).  While the December maximum temperatures were 0.6°F warmer than the long-term average (26.4°F), both January (-1.5°F) and February (-1.1°F) were colder than average.

The average minimum temperature was 2.2°F colder than the long-term average of 8.2°F.  The greatest frequency of below average minimum temperatures were in January (13 our 21, 61.9%) and February (15 out of 21, 71.4%).  When compared to the long-term temperature averages, the minimum temperatures during La Niña Decembers were 0.3°F colder than average (10.9°F), Januarys were 3.3°F colder than average (4.3°F), and Februarys were 2.9°F colder than average (9.4°F).

Rochester, MN Average Temperatures during La Nina Winters
La Niña Average
Winter
Temperatures
in Rochester, MN

Rochester, MN Average MaximumTemperatures during La Nina Winters

La Niña Average
Winter
Minimum Temperatures
in Rochester, MN

Rochester, MN Average MinimumTemperatures during La Nina Winters

La Niña Average
Winter
Minimum Temperatures
in Rochester, MN

The table below provides a monthly breakdown of winter temperatures in Rochester, MN during La Niña.

Breakdown of Monthly Temperatures in Rochester, MN during La Niña Winters
Winter
Winter
(DJF)
ONI
Average Temperature
Winter
(DJF)
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
1949-1950
-1.7
15.0
20.8
10.3
14.4
1950-1951
-1.0
11.2
10.8
7.3
16.4
1954-1955
-1.0
17.3
22.4
14.7
15.2
1955-1956
-1.3
12.8
12.8
12.4
13.1
1956-1957
-0.5
18.1
23.1
10.0
22.3
1962-1963
-0.6
12.0
19.3
4.0
13.1
1964-1965
-0.8
12.1
15.4
9.7
11.6
1967-1968
-0.7
17.1
21.8
14.6
14.9
1970-1971
-1.3
13.2
18.0
5.8
16.4
1971-1972
-0.7
13.0
20.0
6.5
12.4
1973-1974
-1.9
14.3
14.9
12.8
15.8
1974-1975
-0.6
17.3
22.3
14.6
15.4
1975-1976
-1.6
21.0
22.5
12.8
28.2
1984-1985
-0.9
14.6
19.1
10.3
14.8
1988-1989
-1.7
16.8
19.2
21.7
9.4
1995-1996
-0.7
14.9
18.1
9.6
17.0
1998-1999
-1.4
20.6
25.1
11.2
26.6
1999-2000
-1.6
21.3
23.6
14.4
26.3
2000-2001
-0.6
11.5
6.1
17.4
11.2
2007-2008
-1.4
14.7
17.0
13.6
13.3
2010-2011
-1.3
14.6
 14.7
 11.4
18.0 
 
 
DJF
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
La Niña Average
15.5F
18.4F
11.7F
16.5F
1950-2010 Longterm Average
16.5F
18.6F
12.8F
18.1F
Difference from Longterm Average
-1.0F
-0.2F
-1.1F
-1.6F
# Below
13
(61.9%)
9
(42.9%)
12
(57.1%)
17
(81.0%)
# Above
8
(38.1%)
12
(57.1%)
7
(33.3%)
4
(19.0%)
# Same
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
2
(9.6%)
0
(0%)

Winter Precipitation in the Upper Mississippi River Valley:

Precipitation can be quite variable during La Niña winters across the Upper Mississippi River Valley.  More details on the precipitation at La Crosse, WI and Rochester, MN can be found below.

La Crosse, WI

In La Crosse, WI, there has been a slight tendency of La Niña winters being wetter (12 out 21, 57.1%) than the long-term (1949-2011) average of 3.23 inches. However the drier winters have been so dry that the overall average for this season (3.12 inches) is 0.11 inches below the long-term average.  Precipitation totals during these winters have ranged from 0.98 inches (1956-57) to 4.60 inches (1974-75).

While there has been a slight tendency toward wetter seasonal precipitation, the data for each of these months shows a slight tendency to be drier than normal (57 to 62 percent).

La Crosse, WI Precipitation during La Nina Winters
La Niña Winter
Precipitation
in La Crosse, WI
It is interesting to note that from the 1950s through late 1960s, there were six consecutive La Niña winters which were drier than the long-term average. These winters saw on average 1.55 inches of precipitation (1.68 inches below the long-term average). Since 1970, ten out of thirteen (76.9%) La Niña winters have been wetter than normal. These winters saw on average 3.78 inches of precipitation (0.55 inches wetter than the long-term average).

The table below provides a monthly breakdown of winter precipitation in La Crosse, WI during La Niña.
Breakdown of Monthly Precipitation in La Crosse, WI during La Niña Winters
Winter
Winter
(DJF)
ONI
Total Precipitation
Winter
(DJF)
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
1949-1950
-1.7
3.97"
1.20"
1.34"
1.43"
1950-1951
-1.0
4.41"
1.57"
1.05"
1.79"
1954-1955
-1.0
1.34"
0.47"
0.30"
0.57"
1955-1956
-1.3
1.67"
0.78"
0.46"
0.43"
1956-1957
-0.5
0.98"
0.53"
0.25"
0.20"
1962-1963
-0.6
1.46"
0.30"
0.67"
0.49"
1964-1965
-0.8
2.39"
0.86"
0.81"
0.72"
1967-1968
-0.7
1.44"
0.51"
0.87"
0.06"
1970-1971
-1.3
4.55"
0.97"
1.52"
2.06"
1971-1972
-0.7
3.67"
2.55"
0.62"
0.50"
1973-1974
-1.9
3.42"
1.37"
0.40"
1.65"
1974-1975
-0.6
4.60"
1.39"
1.50"
1.71"
1975-1976
-1.6
2.03"
0.70"
0.69"
0.64"
1984-1985
-0.9
4.57"
2.42"
0.88"
1.27"
1988-1989
-1.7
1.59"
0.78"
0.41"
0.40"
1995-1996
-0.7
4.26"
0.82"
3.03"
0.41"
1998-1999
-1.4
3.92"
0.30"
2.84"
0.78"
1999-2000
-1.6
3.01"
0.67"
1.43"
0.91"
2000-2001
-0.6
4.08"
1.90"
1.19"
0.99"
2007-2008
-1.4
5.08"
2.64"
1.30"
1.14"
2010-2011
-1.3
3.18"
2.39"
 0.79"
1.12"
 
 
DJF
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
La Niña Average
3.12"
1.20"
1.06"
0.92"
1950-2010 Longterm Average
3.23"
1.22"
1.03"
0.98"
Difference from Longterm Average
-0.11"
-0.02"
+0.03"
-0.06"
# Below
9
(42.9%)
13
(61.9%)
12
(57.1%)
12
(57.1%)
# Above
12
(57.1%)
8
(38.1%)
9
(42.9%)
9
(42.9%)
# Same
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
0
(0%)

Rochester, MN

In Rochester, MN, there has been a nearly even split of La Niña winters being drier (11) and wetter (10) than the long-term (1949-2011) average of 2.71 inches. The overall average for these winters is 2.77 inches (0.08 inches wetter than the long-term average), and they have ranged from 0.97 inches (1956-57) to 5.29 inches (2010-11).

 

Rochester, MN Precipitation during La Nina Winters
La Niña Winter
Precipitation
in Rochester, MN

It is interesting to note that from the mid 1950s to the mid 1970s, nine out of eleven (81.8%) La Niña winters were drier than normal. These winters saw on average 2.20 inches of precipitation (0.51 inches below normal).  Since then, six out of the eight (75%) of the La Niña winters have been wetter than the long-term average.

The table below provides a monthly breakdown of winter precipitation in Rochester, MN during La Niña.

Breakdown of Monthly Precipitation in Rochester, MN during La Niña Winters
Winter
Winter
(DJF)
ONI
Total Precipitation
Winter
(DJF)
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
1949-1950
-1.7
3.61"
0.73"
1.55"
1.33"
1950-1951
-1.0
4.69"
1.81"
0.85"
2.03"
1954-1955
-1.0
2.10"
0.56"
0.40"
1.14"
1955-1956
-1.3
2.32"
1.23"
0.57"
0.52"
1956-1957
-0.5
0.97"
0.32"
0.18"
0.47"
1962-1963
-0.6
1.49"
0.28"
0.82"
0.39"
1964-1965
-0.8
2.63"
0.84"
0.45"
1.34"
1967-1968
-0.7
1.13"
0.22"
0.77"
0.14"
1970-1971
-1.3
4.15"
0.82"
1.12"
2.21"
1971-1972
-0.7
1.98"
0.98"
0.71"
0.29"
1973-1974
-1.9
2.08"
0.99"
0.36"
0.73"
1974-1975
-0.6
3.23"
0.56"
1.91"
0.76"
1975-1976
-1.6
2.08"
1.21"
0.38"
0.49"
1984-1985
-0.9
2.99"
1.79"
0.63"
0.57"
1988-1989
-1.7
1.94"
1.11"
0.41"
0.42"
1995-1996
-0.7
2.80"
0.62"
2.00"
0.18"
1998-1999
-1.4
3.26"
0.29"
2.07"
1.00"
1999-2000
-1.6
3.24"
0.49"
1.76"
0.99"
2000-2001
-0.6
3.61"
1.64"
0.91"
1.06"
2007-2008
-1.4
2.44"
1.21"
0.67"
0.56"
2010-2011
-1.3
5.29"
3.68"
 0.84"
0.77"
 
 
DJF
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
La Niña Average
2.77"
1.02"
0.92"
0.83"
1950-2010 Longterm Average
2.69"
1.05"
0.84"
0.81"
Difference from Longterm Average
+0.08"
-0.03"
+0.09"
+0.02"
# Below
11
(52.4%)
13
(61.9%)
12
(57.1%)
13
(61.9%)
# Above
10
(47.6%)
8
(38.1%)
8
(38.1%)
8
(38.1%)
# Same
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
1
(4.8%)
0
(0%)

Winter (DJF) Snowfall in the Upper Mississippi River Valley:

Snowfall can be quite variable during La Niña winters across the Upper Mississippi River Valley.  More details on the precipitation at La Crosse, WI and Rochester, MN can be found below.

La Crosse, WI

At La Crosse, WI, there has been a near even split between below (11) and above (9) long-term (1949-2010) average snowfall.  The other one was the same as the long-term average.  During the twenty-one La Niñas since the 1949-50 winter, the average winter snowfall was 30.5 inches.  This was 1.1 inches more than the 1949-2011 average of 29.4 inches.  While the winter seasonal snowfall is above average, the monthly values are showing a tendency of below average and this shows up the greatest in February (71.4%). 

While winter snowfall during La Niñas is usually below normal, they can vary dramatically from 6.8 (1967-68) to 60.4 (1970-71) inches.

The table below provides a monthly breakdown of winter snowfall in La Crosse, WI during La Niña.

La Crosse, WI Snowfall during La Nina Winters (DJF)
La Niña Winter (DJF)
Snowfall
in La Crosse, WI
Breakdown of Monthly Snowfall in La Crosse, WI during La Niña Winters
Winter
Winter
(DJF)
ONI
Snowfall
Winter
(DJF)
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
1949-1950
-1.7
29.4"
8.6"
6.8"
14.0"
1950-1951
-1.0
39.7"
19.5"
14.5"
5.7"
1954-1955
-1.0
13.4"
5.3"
4.8"
3.3"
1955-1956
-1.3
17.6"
8.0"
5.8"
3.8"
1956-1957
-0.5
10.6"
4.2"
3.4"
3.0"
1962-1963
-0.6
23.3"
4.7"
13.3"
5.3"
1964-1965
-0.8
26.0"
6.7"
12.7"
6.6"
1967-1968
-0.7
6.8"
1.5"
4.5"
0.8"
1970-1971
-1.3
60.4"
13.5"
26.5"
20.4"
1971-1972
-0.7
30.2"
12.0"
10.2"
8.0"
1973-1974
-1.9
26.7"
9.8"
2.0"
14.9"
1974-1975
-0.6
49.0"
10.1"
18.8"
20.1"
1975-1976
-1.6
11.7"
1.0"
8.0"
2.7"
1984-1985
-0.9
28.0"
13.3"
9.4"
5.3"
1988-1989
-1.7
16.9"
5.2
3.8"
7.9"
1995-1996
-0.7
45.0"
8.8"
35.0"
1.2"
1998-1999
-1.4
38.4"
4.1"
31.9"
2.4"
1999-2000
-1.6
19.6"
4.8"
9.4"
5.4"
2000-2001
-0.6
36.0"
25.5"
4.3"
6.2"
2007-2008
-1.4
57.5"
24.2"
18.3"
15.0"
2010-2011
-1.3
43.6"
32.3"
11.3"
10.8"
 
 
DJF
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
La Niña Average
30.5"
10.6"
12.1"
7.8"
1950-2010 Longterm Average
29.4"
10.4"
10.8"
8.2"
Difference from Longterm Average
+1.1"
+0.2"
+1.3"
-0.4"
# Below
11
(52.4%)
14
(66.7%)
12
(57.1%)
15
(71.4%)
# Above
9
(42.9%)
7
(33.3%)
9
(38.1%)
6
(28.6%)
# Same
1
(4.7%)
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
0
(0%)

Rochester, MN

At Rochester, MN, there has been a slight tendency (12 out of 21, 57.1%) for La Niña winters to be snowier than the long-term (1949-2011) average.   During the twenty-one La Niña winterss since the 1949-50 winter, the average winter snowfall was 30.5 inches.  This was 1.1 inches greater than the 1949-2011 average of 29.4 inches.  There was a tendency for below normal snow during December (13 out 21, 61.9%) and February (13 out of 21, 61.9%).

During La Niñas, snowfall has varied dramatically from 7.8 (1967-68) to 60.4 (2010-11) inches.

The table below provides a monthly breakdown of winter snowfall in Rochester, MN during La Niña.

Rochester, MN Snowfall during La Nina Winters (DJF)
La Niña Winter (DJF)
Snowfall
in Rochester, MN
Breakdown of Monthly Snowfall in Rochester, MN during La Niña Winters
Winter
Winter
(DJF)
ONI
Snowfall
Winter
(DJF)
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
1949-1950
-1.7
34.0"
4.7"
14.4"
14.9"
1950-1951
-1.0
40.0"
21.4"
12.4"
6.2"
1954-1955
-1.0
14.5"
5.2"
4.6"
4.7"
1955-1956
-1.3
28.8"
17.4"
5.7"
5.7"
1956-1957
-0.5
10.5"
3.6"
2.0"
4.9"
1962-1963
-0.6
22.0"
4.5"
11.8"
5.7"
1964-1965
-0.8
26.3"
6.4"
11.1"
8.8"
1967-1968
-0.7
7.8"
0.7"
4.7"
2.4"
1970-1971
-1.3
43.0"
10.8"
16.2"
16.0"
1971-1972
-0.7
22.9"
8.4"
11.0"
3.5"
1973-1974
-1.9
30.7"
16.3"
2.1"
12.3"
1974-1975
-0.6
32.6"
8.3"
14.1"
10.2"
1975-1976
-1.6
10.1"
1.9"
6.6"
1.6"
1984-1985
-0.9
35.9"
14.4"
12.2"
9.3"
1988-1989
-1.7
18.8"
4.8"
4.7"
9.3"
1995-1996
-0.7
43.9"
11.8"
30.2"
1.9"
1998-1999
-1.4
40.1"
5.3"
29.4"
5.4"
1999-2000
-1.6
33.9"
7.6"
19.3"
7.0"
2000-2001
-0.6
50.0"
35.3"
7.3"
7.4"
2007-2008
-1.4
33.4"
13.1"
13.0"
7.3"
2010-2011
-1.3
60.4"
41.3"
9.8"
9.3"
 
 
DJF
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
La Niña Average
30.5"
11.6"
11.6"
7.3"
1950-2010 Longterm Average
29.4"
11.0"
10.3"
8.1"
Difference from Longterm Average
+1.1"
+0.6"
+1.3
-0.8"
# Below
9
(42.9%)
13
(61.9%)
9
(42.9%)
13
(61.9%)
# Above
12
(57.1%)
8
(38.1%)
12
(57.1%)
8
(38.1%)
# Same
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
0
(0%)
0
(0%)

 

nws logo Media use of NWS Web News Stories is encouraged. Please acknowledge the NWS as the source of any news information accessed from this site.

 


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.