CAA: An acronym for Cold Air Advection. See Cold Air Advection.
C-Band Radar: A radar operating in the 3900 to 6200 megahertz range whose wavelength is generally accepted as 5 centimeters. The National Weather Service still operates a few of these radars around the country, but within the next year or so, they should be all shut down.
Cache Site: A secure storage area for equipment. Normally a location owned and operated by user agencies where fire fighting equipment is stored and dispatched when needed. Single agency and multiagency cache site securely store and, upon proper request, dispatch the National Weather Service (NWS) Air Transportable Mobile Unit (ATMU) when needed at the site of an incident.
CADAS (Centralized Automated Data Acquisition System): A system of two minicomputers in NWSH that interrogates LARCs and DARDCs by telephone every 6 hours and transmits the data to AFOS via HADS.
Calibration: The process of using historical data to estimate parameters in a hydrologic forecast technique such as Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SACSMA), routings, and unit hydrographs.
Calm: A condition when no air motion is detected.
Cap or Cap Strength: It measures the ability of stable air aloft (a layer of relatively warm air) to inhibit low-level parcel ascent. Empirical studies show that a cap greater than 2oC often precludes thunderstorms in the absence of a strong dynamical or forced lift. This occurs even when the instability is excessive. A strong cap prevents widespread convection from occurring; thus, it allows low level heat and moisture to increase over a period of time. This in turn increases the amount of potential instability. Also, the air above it can cool, which also increases potential instability. This delay in the onset of convection increases the severe potential for a limited number of cells that manage to punch through the cap or reach the boundary separating capped from uncapped region. The cap is an important ingredient in most severe thunderstorm episodes, as it serves to separate warm, moist air below and cooler, drier air above. Meanwhile, when there is no cap, either process (warming/moistening at low levels or cooling aloft) results in a faster release of available instability - often before instability levels become large enough to support severe weather development. As a result, convection tends to be widespread, but less intense. This is a result of developing thunderstorms competing for a limited amount of available moisture. Therefore, severe storms often form along these lid boundaries, where the release of potential instability is favored. As a result, thunderstorms showing rapid growth within or very near a strongly capped region become severe. This is also called a lid.
CAPE: An acronym for Convective Available Potential Energy. See Convective Available Potential Energy.
Capillarity: (1) The degree to which a material or
object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the
surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level. Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is
generally assumed to be water. (2) The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices
above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules.
Capillary Fringe: The soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary zone is also called the capillary zone.
Capillary Potential: The work required to move a unit mass of water from the reference plane to any point in the soil column.
Capillary Zone: The soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary zone is also called the capillary fringe.
CAPPI: An acronym for Constant Altitude PPI. A data product providing radar data at a fixed height or altitude, rather than at a fixed elevation angle.
Cartesian Coordinates: The familiar "x-y" coordinate system, in which the axes are at right angles to each other. Raw radar data, often in polar coordinates, can always be converted to Cartesian coordinates.
Catchment Area: An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff (also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed).
Categorical: A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or 100 percent chance of measurable precipitation (0.01 inch). See Precipitation Probability (PoP).
Caution Stage: Same as alert stage.
CB: An acronym for Cumulonimbus. See Cumulonimbus.
CCL: An acronym for Convective Condensation Level. See Convective Condensation Level.
Ceiling: The height of the lowest layer of broken or overcast clouds.
Ceiling Balloon: A small balloon used to determine the height of the cloud base. The height is computed from the balloon's ascent rate and the time required for its disappearance into the cloud.
Ceiling Light: A type of cloud-height indicator that uses a focused light to project vertically a narrow beam of light onto a cloud base.
Ceilometer: A device used to evaluate the height of clouds or the vertical visibility into a surface-based obscuration.
Cell: Convection in the form of a single updraft, downdraft, or updraft/downdraft couplet, typically seen as a vertical dome or tower as in a cumulus or towering cumulus cloud. A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells (see multi-cellular thunderstorm). The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm. Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect.
Center: The vertical axis or core of a tropical cyclone. It is usually determined by cloud vorticity patterns, wind, and/or pressure distributions.
Center/Vortex Fix: The location of the center of a tropical or subtropical cyclone obtained by reconnaissance aircraft penetration, satellite, radar, or synoptic data.
Central North Pacific Basin: The region north of the Equator between 140W and the International Dateline. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) in Honolulu, HI is responsible for tracking tropical cyclones in this region.
Centroid: The center of mass of a convective cell (storm) or other precipitation system.
Cerunophobia: The fear of thunder. See Astraphobia, Astrapophobia, Brontophobia, Keraunophobia, and Tonitrophobia
CFS (Cubic Feet per Second): The flow rate or
discharge equal to one cubic foot (of water, usually) per second. This rate is equivalent
to approximately 7.48 gallons per second. This is also referred to as a second-foot.
CFS (Cubic Feet per Second) Day: The volume of water discharged in twenty four hours, with a flow of one cubic foot per second is widely used; 1 cfs-day is 24 x 60 x 60 = 86,000 cubic feet, 1.983471 acre-feet, or 646,317 gallons. The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days.
Chaff: Small strips of metal foil, usually dropped in large quantities from aircraft or balloons. Chaff typically produces a radar echo which closely resembles precipitation. Chaff drops once were conducted by the military in order to confuse enemy radar, but now are conducted mainly for radar testing and calibration purposes.
Chance: A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation (0.01 inch). When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used. See Precipitation Probability (PoP).
Channel (watercourse): An open conduit either
naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving
water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water. River, creek, run, branch,
anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural
channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to
describe artificial channels.
Channel Inflow: Water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel.
Channel Lead: An elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current.
Channelling: The tendency of the wind to follow the
axis of a channel or be steered by sloping land, resulting in a change in its direction.
Channel Routing: The process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river.
Channelization: The modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening.
Chart Datum: A plane of reference,
established by the National Ocean Survey (NOS), as a mean low water level for each of the
Great Lakes. These are expressed in feet above mean water level at Point-au-Pere (Father
Point), Quebec, which is considered the Mean Sea Level (MSL) datum for the Great Lakes.
All depths and clearances shown on NOS charts refer to Chart Datum. Actual water levels
are reported by the Coast Guard in inches above or below Chart Datum. The following table
shows the Chart Datums for Great Lakes in feet above sea level.
|Great Lakes Chart Datums|
|Lake||Feet Above Sea Level||Lake||Feet Above Sea Level|
Cheimaphobia: The fear of cold.
Cheimatophobia: The fear of cold.
Chionophobia: Fear of snow.
Chinook Wind: A warm, dry wind that descends the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The warmth and dryness of this wind can quickly melt and evaporate snowcover. Another name for this type of wind is "foehn".
CIN: An acronym for Convective Inhibition. See Convective Inhibition.
Circulation Cell: A "package" of air with a distinct circulation pattern, i.e., a lake breeze.
Cirrocumulus(Cc): They are thin clouds, the individual elements which appear as small white flakes or patches of cotton, usually sowing brilliant and glittering quality suggestive of ice crystals. They form at altitudes between 16,500 to 45,000 feet above ground.
Cirrocumulus Standing Leticular (CCSL): These clouds are formed on the crests of waves crested by barriers in the wind flow. The clouds show little movement hence the name standing. Wind, however, can be quite strong blowing through the cloud. They are characterized by their smooth, polished edges. They may also form on wave crests. They are ice crystal clouds and generally are whiter than ACSL. These clouds from between 16,500 and 45,000 feet.
Cirrostratus (Cs): They are thin, whitish cloud layers appearing like a sheet or veil. They are diffuse sometimes partially striated or fibrous. Due to their ice crystal makeup, these clouds are associated with halos--large, luminous circles or arcs of circles surrounding the sun or moon. The layer frequently is the edge of a frontal shield. They form at altitudes between 16,500 to 45,000 feet above ground.
Cirrus (Ci): They are thin, feather like clouds composed entirely of ice crystals. They form at altitudes between 16,500 to 45,000 feet above ground. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms.
CISK: An acronym for Conditional Instability of the Second Kind.
Civil Emergency Message (CEM): These National Weather Service statements are issued when a local or state official wants a warning disseminated regarding nuclear accidents, spills of toxic material, and other similar situations.
Classic Supercell: See supercell.
Clear Ice: It is a glossy, clear or translucent ice formed by the relatively slow freezing of large supercooled droplets. The large droplets spread out over the airfoil of an airplane before complete freezing, forming a sheet of clear ice.
Clear Skies: Skies are clear when no clouds or obscurations are observed or detected from the point of observation.
Clear Slot: A local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud. A clear slot is believed to be a visual indication of a rear flank downdraft.
Client Agency: As used in connection with reimbursable National Weather Service (NWS) fire weather services, a public fire service or wildlands management agency, Federal or non-Federal, which requires and uses NWS fire and forestry meteorological services
Cliff Effect: The dramatic alteration in direction of an onshore wind by a cliff face. The offshore equivalent is called the Lee Effect.
Climatological Data (CD): This National
Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publication, also produced monthly and annually, contains
daily temperature and precipitation data for over 8,000 locations.
Monthly editions contain station daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation. Some stations provide daily snowfall, snow depth, evaporation, and soil temperature data. Each issue also contains monthly summaries for heating and cooling degree days (65 degrees F base). The July issue also contains monthly heating degree days and snow data for the preceding July through June. The Annual issue contains monthly and annual averages of temperature, precipitation, temperature extremes, freeze data, soil temperatures, evaporation, and a recap of monthly cooling degree days. The CD is published by state or region (New England), with a total of 45 issues produced each month.
Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC): This agency is part of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Their mission is to identify the nature and causes of climate variations on time scales ranging from a month to centuries. The goal of this work is to develop the ability to predict important climate variations on these time scales.
Climate Prediction Center (CPC): One of nine national centers that comprises the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Their mission is to maintain a continuous watch on short-term climate fluctuations and to diagnose and predict them. These efforts are designed to assist agencies both inside and outside the federal government in coping with such climate related problems as food supply, energy allocation, and water resources.
Closed Basin: A basin draining to some depression
or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation. A
basin without a surface outlet for precipitation falling precipitation.
Closed Basin Lake Flooding: Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one. Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years.
Closed Low: A low pressure area with a distinct center of cyclonic circulation which can be completely encircled by one or more isobars or height contour lines. The term usually is used to distinguish a low pressure area aloft from a low-pressure trough. Closed lows aloft typically are partially or completely detached from the main westerly current, and thus move relatively slowly (see cutoff low).
Cloud: A visible aggregate of minute water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earth's surface.
Cloud-Air Lightning (CA): Streaks of lightning which pass from a cloud to the air, but do not strike the ground.
Cloud-Cloud Lightning (CC): Streaks of lightning reaching from one cloud to another.
Cloud-Ground Lightning (CG): Lightning occurring between cloud and ground.
Cloud Height: The height of the base of a cloud or cloud layer above the surface of the earth.
Cloud Layer: An array of clouds whose bases are at approximately the same level.
Cloud Seeding: An experimental process used to weaken hurricanes or make rain in dry areas.
Cloud Streets: Rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow. Cloud streets sometimes can be seen from the ground, but are seen best on satellite photographs.
Cloud Tags: Ragged, detached cloud fragments; fractus or scud.
Cloud-Water Lightning (CW): Lightning occurring between cloud and water.
Cloudy: When the predominant/average sky condition is covered completely by opaque (not transparent) clouds. In other words, 8 octants of the sky is covered by opaque clouds.
Clutter: Radar echoes that interfere with observation of desired signals on the radar display.
CNIF: Calibration Network Information Files
Coalescence: The process by which water droplets in a cloud collide and come together to form raindrops.
Coastal Convergence: The convergence or running together of land and se winds, creating a stronger band of windnear the shore. Factors such as the shape of the shoreline and the angle between the wind and the shore determine the severity of this effect.
Coastal Flood Statement: This National Weather Service product keeps the public and cooperating agencies informed of the status of existing coastal flood watches and warnings as well as provides an update on local conditions. It is also used to cancel a Coastal Flood Watch or a Coastal Flood Warning.
Coastal Flood Warning: This National Weather Service product alerts residents along the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coasts that coastal flooding is either imminent or occurring.
Coastal Flood Watch: This National Weather Service product alerts residents along the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coasts to the possibility of coastal flooding.
Coastal Marine Forecasts (CWF): This National Weather Service marine product is designed to serve the needs of the widest variety of maritime activities in the coastal waters of Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. Coastal water traffic ranges from numerous small and weather-sensitive craft, many of which do not venture far from land, to the largest ocean-going vessels. Another important activity is the offshore energy vessels that includes mobile drill ships and fixed platforms.
Coastal Waters: The marine area, including bays, harbors, and sounds, from a line approximating the mean high water mark (average height over a 19-year period) along the mainland or near-shore islands out to as much as 100 nautical miles offshore.
Coastal Flooding: Flooding that occurs from storms where water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. These can be hurricanes, "nor'easters," or tropical storms, but even a severe winter storm or thunderstorm can cause this type of flooding.
COE: An acronym for Corps of Engineers
Coherent Radar: A radar that utilizes both signal phase and amplitude to determine target characteristics (e.g., velocity, spectrum width).
Cokriging: A technique for estimating values of a spatial process (e.g., a precipitation field) given point observations of the process (e.g., rain gage observations) and possibly auxiliary observations (e.g., radar and satellite observations).
Cold Air Advection: Transport of cold air into a region by horizontal winds.
Cold Air Funnel: A funnel cloud or (rarely) a small, relatively weak tornado that can develop from a small shower or thunderstorm when the air aloft is unusually cold (hence the name). They are much less violent than other types of tornadoes.
Cold Core Low: A low pressure area which is colder at its center than at its periphery. Mid-latitude cyclones exhibit this temperature pattern. They usually produce much of their cloud cover and precipitation during the daytime when the instability is the greatest. At night, the clouds and precipitation usually diminishes significantly.
Cold Front: The leading edge of a relatively colder airmass which separates two air masses in which the gradients of temperature and moisture are maximized. In the northern hemisphere winds ahead of the front will be typically southwest and shift into the northwest with frontal passage.
Cold Pool: A region of relatively cold air, represented on a weather map analysis as a relative minimum in temperature surrounded by closed isotherms. Cold pools aloft represent regions of relatively low stability, while surface-based cold pools are regions of relatively stable air.
Collar Cloud: A generally circular ring of cloud that may be observed on rare occasions surrounding the upper part of a wall cloud. This term sometimes is used (incorrectly) as a synonym for wall cloud.
Columnar Ice: Ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained.
Combined Seas: Generally referred to as "SEAS". It is used to describe the combination or interaction of wind waves and swells. In some prediction techniques, its height is the square root of the sum of the squares of the wind wave and swell heights. It is generally equal to the height of the swell plus 1/3 the height of the wind waves.
Combined Shear (CS): This WSR-88D radar product displays a combined radial and azimuthal shear of the mean radial velocity. It is available for all elevation angles; however, its high computational load on the system may result in load shedding of other radar products. It is used to identify low-level wind shear associated with gust fronts, downbursts, and mesoscale rotational phenomena. Aviation interests and operational researchers primarily use this radar product.
Combined Shear Contour (CSC): This WSR-88D radar product is a contoured version of Combined Shear (CS) that is displayable alone or as an overlay on reflectivity or velocity products. It is generated upon radar operator request for the same elevation angle selected as the Combined Shear (CS) product. It is used: 1) as an overlay to highlight shear zones on velocity products; and 2) to identify low-level wind shear associated with gust fronts, downbursts, and mesoscale rotational phenomena. Aviation interests and operational researchers primarily use this radar product.
Complex Index of Refraction: m = n + i*k, where n is the normal index of refraction, i is sqrt(-1), and k is the absorption coefficient.
Complex Signal: A signal containing both amplitude and phase information.
Comma Cloud: A synoptic scale cloud pattern with a characteristic comma-like shape, often seen on satellite photographs associated with large and intense low-pressure systems.
Comma Echo: - A thunderstorm radar echo which has a comma-like shape. It often appears during latter stages in the life cycle of a bow echo.
Complex Gale/Storm: In the National Weather Service High Seas Forecast, an area for which gale/storm force winds are forecast or are occurring, but for which no single center is the principle generator of these winds.
Composite Hydrograph: A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period.
Composite Reflectivity(CR): This WSR-88D radar product displays the maximum reflectivities for each resolution grid box for all elevation angles in a volume scan. Available with combined attribute table which provides valuable information concerning storm characteristics, such as storm tops, maximum radial velocity and reflectivity, and possible existence of hail and mesocyclones. It is used to observe the highest reflectivities in a storm from any scanned elevation angle; determine intensity trends; and generate cross section through maximum reflectivity.
Composite Reflectivity Contour (CRC): This WSR-88D radar product is a line contoured image of composite reflectivity (CR). Contour intervals and number of contours are changed at the User Control Processor. There is also a combined attribute table available for this product. It is used to view a contoured image of higher reflectivity values; examine storm structure features such as overhang, tilt, Weak Echo Regions (WER), and Bounded Weak Echo Regions (BWER); estimate height of higher dBZ's and echo tops; and locate the bright band (where snow is melting and becoming rain)
Concentric Rings: These are common in the most intense hurricanes. They usually mark the end the period of intensification. These hurricanes then maintain quasi-constant intensity or weaken. When the inner eye is completely dissipated, more intensification may occur.
Condensation: The process by which a gas or vapor changes into a liquid.
Condensation Funnel: A funnel-shaped cloud associated with rotation and consisting of condensed water droplets (as opposed to smoke, dust, debris, etc.). Compare with debris cloud.
Conductor: Any substance or object which carries electricity.
Conditional Symmetric Instability (CSI): Fundamentally, CSI results from a combination of forces acting simultaneously along different planes of the atmosphere. As is well known, an uneven distribution of gravitational forces in the vertical can give rise to convective instability. Similarly, horizontal inertial instability can develop in strongly anticyclonically-sheared regimes, due to an imbalance of centrifugal forces. CSI environments typically exhibit weak convective and inertial stability for strictly vertical or horizontal motions. However, air parcels displaced along certain sloped, or "slantwise" trajectories may attain positive buoyancy due to a unique combination of gravitational and centrifugal forces. While convective available potential energy (CAPE) values within these environments are typically much smaller than those associated with upright convection, sufficient energies are frequently present to support the formation and maintenance of thunderstorm cells. There is growing evidence supporting the role CSI plays in the development of some types of thunderstorms, particularly those occurring within strongly baroclinic regimes.
Cone of Depression: The depression, roughly conical
in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of
water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of
withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence.
Cone of Influence: The depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Depression.
Confined Ground Water: Ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge called artesian if the pressure is positive.
Confluence: A pattern of wind flow in which air flows inward toward an axis oriented parallel to the general direction of flow. It is the opposite of difluence. Confluence is not the same as convergence. Winds often accelerate as they enter a confluent zone, resulting in speed divergence which offsets the (apparent) converging effect of the confluent flow.
Conjugate of a Complex Number: If c = a + i*b is a complex number, then c* = a - i*b is its complex conjugate.
Congressional Organic Act of 1890: The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nation's people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service.
Conservation Storage: Storage of water for later release for usual purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control..
Considerable Cloudiness: When the predominant/average sky condition is covered by more than half, but not completely covered by opaque (not transparent) clouds. In other words, 5/8 to 7/8 of the sky is covered by opaque clouds. Same as Considerable Cloudiness.
Consolidated Ice Cover: Ice cover formed by the packing and freezing together of floes, brash ice and other forms of floating ice.
Contents: The volume of water in a reservoir. Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage.
Continental Shelf (CONSHELF): The zone bordering a continent and extending to a depth, usually around 100 fathoms (600 feet), from which there is a steep descent toward greater depth.
Continental Slope: The area of descent from the edge of the continental shelf into greater depth.
Control Points: Horizontal and Vertical: Small monuments securely embedded in the surface of the dam. Any movement of the monument indicates a movement in the dam itself. Movements in the dam are detected by comparing control points location to location of fixed monuments located off the dam using accurate survey techniques.
CONUS: An acroynm for Continental United States.
Convection: Generally, transport of heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid. In meteorology, the term is used specifically to describe vertical transport of heat and moisture, especially by updrafts and downdrafts in an unstable atmosphere. The terms "convection" and "thunderstorms" often are used interchangeably, although thunderstorms are only one form of convection. Cumulonibus (Cb), towering cumulus clouds, and Altocumulus Castellanus (ACCAS) clouds all are visible forms of convection. However, convection is not always made visible by clouds. Convection which occurs without cloud formation is called dry convection, while the visible convection processes referred to above are forms of moist convection.
Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE or B+): It defines the vertically integrated positive buoyancy of an adiabatically rising air parcel on a sounding. This is proportional to the amount kinetic energy that the air parcel gains while it is warmer that its surrounding environment. As a result, CAPE provides the best measure of the potential instability available in the atmosphere. Increasing values of CAPE generally lead to progressively vigorous convection. However, severe thunderstorms can form in environments showing weak to moderate CAPE, especially if the Storm Relative Helicity values are high.
Convective Clouds: The vertically developed family of clouds are cumulus and cumulonimbus. The height of their bases range from as low as 1,000 feet to a bit more than 10,000 feet. Clouds with extensive vertical development are positive indications of unstable air. Strong upward currents in vertically developed clouds can carry high concentrations of supercooled water to high levels where temperatures are quite cold. Upper portions of these clouds may be composed of water and ice.
Convective Condensation Level (CCL): It is the height to which a parcel of air, if heated sufficiently from below, will rise adiabatically until it is just saturated (condensation starts). It approximates the base height of cumuliform clouds which are, or would be, produced by surface heating.
Convective INhibition (CIN or B-): It represents the cumulative effect of atmospheric layers the are warmer than the parcel moving vertically along the adiabat. Low level parcel ascent is often inhibited by such stable layers near the surface. If natural processes fail to destabilize the lower levels, an input of energy from forced lift (a front, an upper level shortwave, etc.) will be required to move the negatively buoyant air parcels to the point where they will rise freely. Since CIN is proportional to the amount of kinetic energy that a parcel loses to buoyancy while it is colder than the surrounding environment, it contributes to the downward momentum.
Convective Outlook (SWO): A forecast containing the area(s) of expected thunderstorm occurrence and expected severity over the contiguous United States, issued several times daily by the SPC in Norman, Oklahoma. They are sent out as both a narrative and a graphic covering a period of up to 52 hours in advance. This product serves as guidance to the local National Weather Service Office for use in the preparation of forecast products issued; to advise the public, media, and other interests of the possibility of severe weather; and to assist with preliminary staffing should severe weather be anticipated. The terms approaching, slight risk, moderate risk, and high risk are used to describe severe thunderstorm potential. Local versions sometimes are prepared by local NWS offices. It is sometimes called Anticipated Convection (AC) Outlook.
Convective Rain: Rain associated with convective or cumuliform clouds characterized by vertical development in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers.
Convective Rings and Bands: Like "Stratiform Rings and Bands" they occur outside the eye wall of the hurricane. They exhibit a VIP Level 2 or greater reflectivity and occasionally display the "bright band" aloft. When they pass over a location, the wind speed increases by as much as 50%, accompanied by a significant increases in the rainfall rate. When tornadoes and down bursts occur, they are likely to come from convective rings and bands.
Convective SIGMETs: These NWS aviation products are issued in the conterminous U.S. for any of the following:
Severe thunderstorm due to:
surface winds greater than or equal to 50 knots
hail at the surface greater than or equal to 3/4 inches in diameter
Line of thunderstorms
Thunderstorms greater than or equal to VIP level 4 affecting 40% or more of an area at least 3000 square miles.
Any Convective SIGMET implies severe or greater turbulence, severe icing, and low level wind shear. A Convective SIGMET may be issued for any convective situation which the forecaster feels is hazardous to all categories of aircraft.
Convective SIGMET bulletins are issued for the Eastern (E), Central (C), and Western (W) United States. The areas separate at 87 and 107 degrees west longitude with sufficent overlap to cover most cases when the phenomenon crosses the boundaries. Bulletins are issued hourly at Hour+55. The text of the bulletin consists of either an observation and a forecast or just a forecast. The forecast is valid for up to 2 hours.
Convective Temperature: It is the surface temperature that must be reached to start the formation of convective clouds by solar heating of surface-air layer. Calculation of the convective temperature involves many assumptions, such that thunderstorms sometimes develop well before or well after the convective temperature is reached (or may not develop at all). However, in some cases the convective temperature is a useful parameter for forecasting the onset of convection.
Convergence: A contraction of a vector field; the opposite of divergence. Convergence in a horizontal wind field indicates that more air is entering a given area than is leaving at that level. To compensate for the resulting "excess," vertical motion may result: upward forcing if convergence is at low levels, or downward forcing (subsidence) if convergence is at high levels. Upward forcing from low-level convergence increases the potential for thunderstorm development (when other factors, such as instability, are favorable). Compare with confluence.
Convergence Line: A horizontal line along which horizontal convergence of the airflow is occurring. Common forms of convergence lines are sea-breeze fronts, cold-air outflow from thunderstorms, and synoptic fronts.
Conveyance Loss: The loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation, or evapo-transpiration.
Cooling Degree Day: see Degree Day
Cooperative Observer: An individual (or institution) who takes precipitation and temperature observations-and in some cases other observations such as river stage, soil temperature, and evaporation-at or near their home, or place of business. Many observers transmit their reports by touch-tone telephone to an NWS computer, and nearly all observers mail monthly reports to the National Climatic Data Center to be archived and published.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): The time in the zero degree meridian time zone. In order to convert to Eastern Standard Time, subtract 5 hours (Eastern Daylight Time subtract 4 hours). For example, 0900 UTC is 4:00 AM EST or 5:00 AM EDT.
Core Punch: Slang for a penetration by a vehicle into the heavy precipitation core of a thunderstorm. Core punching is not a recommended procedure for storm spotting.
Coriolis Effect: The effect caused by the Earth's rotation which deflects air moving between two places. It causes an object to move to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
Corn Snow Ice: Rotten granular ice.
Corner Effects: A small-scale convergence effect that can be quite severe. It occurs around steep islands and headlands.
Correlation: A measure of the similarity between variables or functions.
County Warning Area (CWA): All the counties or parishes assigned to a specific National Weather Service Office (NWSO) for the purpose of warnings issuance and hazard awareness responsibility.
Couplet: Adjacent maxima of radial velocities of opposite signs.
Covariance: A measure of the degree of association between two variables. In Doppler radars, the argument (or angle) of the covariance of the complex signal is a measure of the Doppler frequency.
Crack: A separation formed in an ice cover of floe that does not divide it into two or more pieces.
Creek: A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion.
Crest: 1) The highest stage or level of a flood
wave as it passes a point. 2) The top of a dam, dike, spillway, or weir, to which water
must rise before passing over the structure.
Crest Gage: A gage used to obtain a record of flood crests at sites where recording gages are installed.
Crest (Top) of Dam: The elevation of the uppermost surface of a dam excluding any parapet walls, railings, etc.
Crest Width (Top thickness): The thickness or width of a dam at the level of the crest (top) of the dam. The term "thickness" is used for gravity and arch dams and "width" for other types of dams.
Critical Depth: The depth of water flowing in an
open channel or conduit, partially filled, corresponding to one of the recognized critical
Critical Flow: A condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belanger's critical depth and velocity. Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds' critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow.
Critical Rainfall Probability (CRP): The Probability that the actual precipitation during a rainfall event has exceeded or will exceed the flash flood guidance value.
Cross Seas: Steep waves with short, sharp wave crests. They form when two or more wave trains moving in different directions run together.
Cross Section: See radar cross section.
Cross-Sectional Area: Area perpendicular to the direction of flow.
CRP (Critical Rainfall Probability): The Probability that a given rainfall will cause a river, or stream to rise above flood stage.
Cryology: The science of the physical aspects of snow, ice, hail, and sleet and other forms of water produced by temperatures below Zero degrees Celsius.
Cryophobia: Fear of extreme cold, ice, or frost.
CSI: An acronym for Conditional Symmetric Instability. See Conditional Symmetric Instability.
CU: An acronym for Cumulus. See Cumulus.
Cubic Feet Per Second (CFS): A unit expressing
rates of discharge. One cubic foot per second is equal to the discharge through a
rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1
foot per second. It is also approximately 7.48 gallons per second.
Cumuliform: Descriptive of all clouds with vertical development in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers.
Cumuliform Anvil: A thunderstorm anvil with visual characteristics resembling cumulus-type clouds (rather than the more typical fibrous appearance associated with cirrus). A cumuliform anvil arises from rapid spreading of a thunderstorm updraft, and thus implies a very strong updraft. See anvil rollover, knuckles, and mushroom.
Cumulonimbus Cloud (Cb): They are the ultimate manifestation of instability. They are vertically developed clouds of large dimensions with dense "boiling" tops often crowned with thick veils of dense cirrus (anvil). This is also called a "thunderstorm cloud". It can produce very heavy precipitation, lightning, large hail (greater than 3/4 inch), damaging winds, and tornadoes.
Cumulonimbus Mammatus Cloud (CBMAM): It is associated with a cumulonimbus cloud. It indicates extreme instability. This cloud is characterized by hanging festoons or protuberances underneath the anvil of the Cumulonimbus Cloud (Cb). The festoons may be at any level of the cloud from the underside of the anvil to the base of the cloud.
Cumulus Cloud (Cu): These clouds form in convective currents and are characterized by relatively flat bases and dome-shaped tops. Fair weather cumulus do not show extensive "towers" or vertical development and do not produce precipitation. A cumulus may, however, be an early stage in the development of towering cumulus or cumulonimbus. More often fair weather cumulus indicate a relatively shallow layer of instability.
Cumulus Congestus: Same as towering cumulus. Sometimes referred to just as congestus.
Current Meter: Device used to measure the water velocity
or current in a river.
Curtain Drain: A drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area. Also called an Intercepting Drain.
Curvature: The reciprocal of the radius of a circle; the rate of change in the deviation of a given arc from any tangent to it.
Cutoff Low: A closed low which has become completely displaced (cut off) from basic westerly current, and moves independently of that current. Cutoff lows may remain nearly stationary for days, or on occasion may move westward opposite to the prevailing flow aloft (i.e., retrogression). "Cutoff low" and "closed low" often are used interchangeably to describe low pressure centers aloft. However, not all closed lows are completely removed from the influence of the basic westerlies. Therefore, the recommended usage of the terms is to reserve the use of "cutoff low" only to those closed lows which clearly are detached completely from the westerlies.
Cuttoff: An impervious construction or material which reduces seepage or prevents it.
Cyclic Storm: A thunderstorm that undergoes cycles of intensification and weakening (pulses) while maintaining its individuality. Cyclic supercells are capable of producing multiple tornadoes (i.e., a tornado family) and/or several bursts of severe weather. A storm which undergoes only one cycle (pulse), and then dissipates, is known as a pulse storm.
Cyclogenesis: Development or intensification of a low-pressure center (cyclone).
Cyclone: An area of low atmospheric pressure that has a closed circulation. Cyclones (or more commonly called "low pressure areas") rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. They usually bring about clouds and precipitation.
Cyclonic Circulation (or Cyclonic Rotation): Circulation (or rotation) which is in the same sense as the Earth's rotation, i.e., counterclockwise (in the Northern Hemisphere) as would be seen from above. Nearly all mesocyclones and strong or violent tornadoes exhibit cyclonic rotation, but some smaller vortices, such as gustnadoes, occasionally rotate anticyclonically (clockwise). Compare with anticyclonic rotation.