Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Graphics & Text | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
000
UXUS97 KPUB 121139
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0538 MDT Sunday, April 12, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, April 12, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 55.6 F/13.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1398 ft/min (7.1 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 20961 ft MSL (14203 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 65.0 F/18.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1000 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 17316 ft MSL (10558 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 04/13....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:27:12 / 19:32:08 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 4 min 56 sec (784 min 56 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:59:49 MDT... 59.83 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/12/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 11662 ft MSL (4904 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18572 ft MSL (11814 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 19158 ft MSL (12401 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +0.5
K index......................... +1.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -58.7 -73.7   265   22   12   0.9   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -57.3 -71.1   270   23   12  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -59.1 -74.4   260   23   12  -1.1  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -57.9 -72.2   260   22   11   5.1   2.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.8 -66.6   260   21   11   5.1   2.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -51.6 -60.9   260   20   10   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -47.7 -53.9   260   18    9   6.5   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -43.1 -45.6   255   16    8   7.7   4.2   26.4  79.5     6.2      M    M
 29000  -40.8 -41.4   260   15    8   7.7   4.2   25.5  77.9     5.6      M    M
 28000  -38.5 -37.3   260   14    7   7.7   4.2   24.8  76.6     5.1      M    M
 27000  -36.2 -33.2   260   13    7   7.7   4.2   24.1  75.4     4.6      M    M
 26000  -33.9 -29.0   265   14    7   7.7   4.2   23.2  73.8     3.9      M    M
 25000  -31.6 -24.9   265   15    8   7.7   4.2   22.4  72.4     3.4      M    M
 24000  -29.3 -20.7   265   16    8   7.4   4.1   21.8  71.2     2.9      M    M
 23000  -27.3 -17.1   265   16    8   6.6   3.6   20.6  69.1     1.9      M    M
 22000  -25.4 -13.7   255   16    8   6.6   3.6   19.5  67.0     0.9      M    M
 21000  -23.4 -10.1   250   16    8   6.9   3.8   18.5  65.2     0.1      M    M
 20000  -21.3  -6.3   250   14    7   7.0   3.9   17.4  63.4    -0.8   1313  6.7
 19500  -20.2  -4.4   250   14    7   7.1   3.9   17.0  62.5    -1.2   1266  6.4
 19000  -19.2  -2.6   250   13    7   7.1   3.9   16.5  61.7    -1.6   1220  6.2
 18500  -18.1  -0.6   245   12    6   7.2   3.9   16.1  61.0    -2.0   1174  6.0
 18000  -17.0   1.4   245   11    6   7.4   4.0   15.7  60.3    -2.4   1126  5.7
 17500  -15.9   3.4   245    9    5   7.3   4.0   15.3  59.5    -2.8   1079  5.5
 17000  -14.8   5.4   240    8    4   8.6   4.7   15.0  59.0    -3.1   1029  5.2
 16500  -13.5   7.7   240    7    3   8.5   4.7   14.8  58.6    -3.3    976  5.0
 16000  -12.2  10.0   240    5    3   9.2   5.1   14.6  58.3    -3.5    923  4.7
 15500  -10.8  12.6   245    5    3   9.5   5.2   14.6  58.2    -3.6    866  4.4
 15000   -8.7  16.3   255    5    3   9.0   4.9   14.5  58.1    -3.7    780  4.0
 14500   -7.4  18.7   275    6    3   9.0   4.9   14.3  57.8    -3.9    726  3.7
 14000   -6.0  21.2   285    7    3   8.9   4.9   14.2  57.6    -4.0    671  3.4
 13500   -4.7  23.5   295    8    4   8.9   4.9   14.1  57.3    -4.2    616  3.1
 13000   -3.4  25.9   300   11    5   9.2   5.0   13.9  57.1    -4.3    561  2.9
 12500   -2.0  28.4   300   13    6   9.3   5.1   13.9  57.0    -4.4    504  2.6
 12000   -0.7  30.7   295   16    8   8.3   4.5   13.7  56.6    -4.6    452  2.3
 11750   -0.1  31.8   295   17    9   9.1   5.0   13.6  56.5    -4.7    425  2.2
 11500    0.6  33.1   295   18    9   9.0   4.9   13.5  56.4    -4.8    397  2.0
 11250    1.3  34.3   295   19   10   8.9   4.9   13.5  56.3    -4.9    370  1.9
 11000    1.9  35.4   295   21   11   8.8   4.8   13.4  56.1    -5.0    343  1.7
 10750    2.6  36.7   295   22   11   8.9   4.9   13.3  56.0    -5.1    316  1.6
 10500    3.2  37.8   295   23   12   8.8   4.9   13.3  55.9    -5.1    289  1.5
 10250    3.9  39.0   295   24   13   8.9   4.9   13.2  55.7    -5.2    262  1.3
 10000    4.5  40.1   290   26   13   8.7   4.8   13.1  55.6    -5.3    235  1.2
  9750    5.2  41.4   290   26   14   8.7   4.8   13.0  55.5    -5.4    209  1.1
  9500    5.8  42.4   290   27   14   8.9   4.9   13.0  55.3    -5.5    182  0.9
  9250    6.5  43.7   290   28   14   8.9   4.9   12.9  55.2    -5.6    155  0.8
  9000    7.1  44.8   290   28   14   8.4   4.6   12.8  55.1    -5.7    128  0.7
  8750    7.7  45.9   290   28   15   7.0   3.8   12.7  54.8    -5.9    104  0.5
  8500    8.2  46.8   285   29   15   7.0   3.8   12.4  54.4    -6.2     81  0.4
  8250    8.7  47.7   285   29   15   5.6   3.1   12.2  54.0    -6.4     59  0.3
  8000    8.9  48.0   285   28   15  -0.2  -0.1   11.7  53.1    -6.9     46  0.2
  7750    8.7  47.7   280   27   14  -2.1  -1.1   10.8  51.5    -7.9     43  0.2
  7500    8.7  47.7   280   24   12   3.4   1.9   10.1  50.2    -8.6     35  0.2
  7250    8.8  47.8   280   20   10  -7.5  -4.1    9.4  49.0    -9.3     27  0.1
  7000    7.2  45.0   280   15    8 -34.4 -18.9    7.7  45.8   -11.1     68  0.3
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/12/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       04/12/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -4.0  LI... +275.0              | K index... +2.6  LI... +273.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -18.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.8 -73.8  255  21 11   0.3   0.2 | -58.5 -73.3  250  20 10   0.8   0.4
 45000 -58.3 -72.9  265  26 13  -0.1  -0.1 | -57.4 -71.3  260  21 11  -0.1  -0.0
 40000 -58.8 -73.8  245  30 15  -0.3  -0.2 | -58.3 -72.9  250  36 18  -0.6  -0.3
 38000 -57.4 -71.3  245  30 16   4.9   2.7 | -57.3 -71.1  250  42 22   4.2   2.3
 36000 -54.5 -66.1  245  29 15   4.9   2.7 | -54.7 -66.5  245  48 25   4.2   2.3
 34000 -51.4 -60.5  250  29 15   6.4   3.5 | -52.0 -61.6  245  53 27   7.1   3.9
 32000 -47.6 -53.7  250  30 15   6.3   3.4 | -47.4 -53.3  245  53 27   6.7   3.7
 30000 -43.1 -45.6  245  30 16   7.7   4.2 | -43.3 -45.9  245  51 26   7.3   4.0
 29000 -40.8 -41.4  245  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -41.1 -42.0  240  47 24   7.3   4.0
 28000 -38.5 -37.3  245  28 14   7.8   4.3 | -38.9 -38.0  240  42 22   7.3   4.0
 27000 -36.1 -33.0  240  27 14   7.7   4.2 | -36.7 -34.1  240  38 20   7.5   4.1
 26000 -33.9 -29.0  245  26 13   7.6   4.2 | -34.4 -29.9  240  36 19   7.7   4.2
 25000 -31.6 -24.9  250  24 13   7.6   4.2 | -32.1 -25.8  240  35 18   7.7   4.2
 24000 -29.3 -20.7  250  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -29.8 -21.6  240  33 17   7.3   4.0
 23000 -27.2 -17.0  255  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -27.8 -18.0  245  31 16   6.4   3.5
 22000 -25.0 -13.0  260  21 11   7.1   3.9 | -25.9 -14.6  250  30 16   6.5   3.5
 21000 -22.9  -9.2  260  21 11   7.2   3.9 | -23.9 -11.0  250  29 15   7.3   4.0
 20000 -20.8  -5.4  265  20 10   7.2   4.0 | -21.6  -6.9  250  25 13   7.6   4.1
 19500 -19.7  -3.5  265  20 10   7.2   4.0 | -20.5  -4.9  245  23 12   7.6   4.1
 19000 -18.6  -1.5  265  20 10   7.2   4.0 | -19.4  -2.9  245  22 11   7.6   4.2
 18500 -17.5   0.5  265  20 10   7.4   4.1 | -18.2  -0.8  245  20 10   8.4   4.6
 18000 -16.4   2.5  260  19 10   7.6   4.2 | -16.9   1.6  250  21 11   9.2   5.0
 17500 -15.2   4.6  255  18  9   7.5   4.1 | -15.5   4.1  255  22 11   9.3   5.1
 17000 -14.0   6.8  250  16  8   8.8   4.8 | -14.2   6.4  260  22 11   7.6   4.2
 16500 -12.7   9.1  245  14  7   8.7   4.8 | -13.1   8.4  265  22 11   7.8   4.3
 16000 -11.4  11.5  235  11  6   8.5   4.6 | -11.4  11.5  265  20 10   7.6   4.2
 15500 -10.2  13.6  240  10  5   8.4   4.6 | -10.3  13.5  265  17  9   7.7   4.2
 15000  -8.3  17.1  245   7  4   8.3   4.5 |  -9.2  15.4  270  15  8   7.7   4.2
 14500  -7.1  19.2  250   6  3   8.3   4.5 |  -8.1  17.4  280  14  7   7.7   4.2
 14000  -5.8  21.6  260   5  3   8.3   4.6 |  -6.9  19.6  285  13  7   9.0   4.9
 13500  -4.6  23.7  285   6  3   8.4   4.6 |  -5.5  22.1  290  12  6   9.2   5.1
 13000  -3.4  25.9  300   8  4   8.5   4.6 |  -4.1  24.6  295  11  6   9.3   5.1
 12500  -2.1  28.2  305  10  5   8.5   4.7 |  -2.8  27.0  310  11  6   9.3   5.1
 12000  -1.0  30.2  310  14  7   7.8   4.3 |  -1.4  29.5  325  10  5   9.5   5.2
 11750  -0.4  31.3  310  16  8   8.9   4.9 |  -0.6  30.9  325  10  5   9.8   5.4
 11500   0.2  32.4  310  17  9   8.7   4.8 |   0.1  32.2  325  10  5   9.4   5.2
 11250   0.9  33.6  310  19 10   8.7   4.8 |   0.8  33.4  330  10  5  10.6   5.8
 11000   1.5  34.7  310  21 11   8.8   4.8 |   1.6  34.9  330  10  5  10.6   5.8
 10750   2.2  36.0  310  22 11   8.9   4.9 |   2.4  36.3  330  10  5   9.3   5.1
 10500   2.8  37.0  310  23 12   8.8   4.8 |   3.1  37.6  330  10  5   9.7   5.3
 10250   3.5  38.3  310  24 12   9.0   4.9 |   3.8  38.8  335  10  5   9.5   5.2
 10000   4.2  39.6  310  25 13   8.3   4.6 |   4.5  40.1  335  10  5   9.8   5.4
  9750   4.8  40.6  310  26 13   8.2   4.5 |   5.3  41.5  335  10  5  10.1   5.6
  9500   5.4  41.7  305  26 14   8.7   4.8 |   6.0  42.8  335  10  5  10.1   5.6
  9250   6.1  43.0  305  27 14   8.6   4.7 |   6.8  44.2  335  10  5  10.0   5.5
  9000   6.7  44.1  305  27 14   7.5   4.1 |   7.5  45.5  335  10  5   9.7   5.3
  8750   7.2  45.0  300  27 14   6.9   3.8 |   8.3  46.9  335  10  5  10.2   5.6
  8500   7.8  46.0  300  26 13   7.2   4.0 |   9.1  48.4  340  10  5  10.7   5.9
  8250   8.3  46.9  295  25 13   7.1   3.9 |   9.8  49.6  340  10  5  10.5   5.8
  8000   8.8  47.8  295  23 12   6.6   3.6 |  10.6  51.1  340  10  5  10.8   5.9
  7750   9.3  48.7  290  20 10   7.1   3.9 |  11.4  52.5  340  10  5  10.1   5.5
  7500   9.8  49.6  290  17  9   8.1   4.5 |  12.1  53.8  340  10  5   8.0   4.4
  7250  10.4  50.7  290  14  7   7.3   4.0 |  12.8  55.0  345  10  5  12.0   6.6
  7000  10.9  51.6  290  12  6   5.6   3.1 |  14.0  57.2  345  10  5  20.9  11.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/12/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       04/12/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.4  LI... +272.5             | K index... +19.6  LI... +271.5
CAPE... +53.0  CIN... -3.5                 | CAPE... +104.4  CIN... -29.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.8 -73.8  255  21 11   0.7   0.4 | -58.6 -73.5  245  21 11   0.6   0.3
 45000 -57.8 -72.0  245  23 12   0.7   0.4 | -57.6 -71.7  235  28 15   0.4   0.2
 40000 -56.6 -69.9  260  37 19   0.8   0.4 | -57.3 -71.1  255  45 23   0.2   0.1
 38000 -55.5 -67.9  255  44 23   2.9   1.6 | -56.2 -69.2  255  51 26   3.3   1.8
 36000 -53.7 -64.7  250  54 28   2.9   1.6 | -54.2 -65.6  245  58 30   3.3   1.8
 34000 -51.2 -60.2  245  65 33   6.5   3.5 | -51.3 -60.3  245  63 33   7.1   3.9
 32000 -47.2 -53.0  245  68 35   6.6   3.6 | -47.0 -52.6  245  63 32   7.2   3.9
 30000 -43.4 -46.1  245  67 34   6.0   3.3 | -42.8 -45.0  245  59 30   6.5   3.6
 29000 -41.6 -42.9  245  61 31   6.0   3.3 | -40.8 -41.4  245  53 27   6.5   3.5
 28000 -39.8 -39.6  240  55 28   6.0   3.3 | -38.9 -38.0  250  48 25   6.5   3.5
 27000 -37.9 -36.2  240  50 26   7.2   4.0 | -36.9 -34.4  255  43 22   6.6   3.6
 26000 -35.6 -32.1  240  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -34.9 -30.8  250  38 20   6.7   3.7
 25000 -33.2 -27.8  240  43 22   8.0   4.4 | -32.9 -27.2  250  34 17   6.8   3.7
 24000 -30.8 -23.4  240  39 20   7.9   4.3 | -30.9 -23.6  250  29 15   6.9   3.8
 23000 -28.5 -19.3  240  34 17   7.6   4.2 | -28.7 -19.7  250  27 14   7.2   4.0
 22000 -26.3 -15.3  240  28 15   7.6   4.2 | -26.6 -15.9  250  26 13   7.2   4.0
 21000 -24.0 -11.2  245  23 12   7.8   4.3 | -24.4 -11.9  255  24 13   7.4   4.0
 20000 -21.7  -7.1  245  20 10   7.9   4.3 | -22.2  -8.0  260  22 11   7.4   4.1
 19500 -20.5  -4.9  250  19 10   7.9   4.3 | -21.1  -6.0  265  21 11   7.4   4.1
 19000 -19.3  -2.7  250  17  9   7.9   4.3 | -20.0  -4.0  270  20 10   7.4   4.1
 18500 -18.2  -0.8  255  16  8   7.7   4.2 | -18.9  -2.0  275  19 10   8.4   4.6
 18000 -17.1   1.2  250  14  7   7.6   4.1 | -17.6   0.3  275  19 10   8.9   4.9
 17500 -16.0   3.2  250  12  6   7.5   4.1 | -16.3   2.7  280  18  9   9.0   4.9
 17000 -14.9   5.2  250  11  5   7.2   4.0 | -14.9   5.2  280  17  9   9.2   5.0
 16500 -13.8   7.2  250   9  5   7.2   4.0 | -13.6   7.5  285  16  8   9.2   5.0
 16000 -12.1  10.2  260   7  4   7.9   4.3 | -11.6  11.1  285  15  7   8.9   4.9
 15500 -11.0  12.2  270   5  3   7.9   4.3 | -10.3  13.5  285  13  7   9.0   4.9
 15000  -9.8  14.4  280   4  2   8.5   4.6 |  -9.0  15.8  290  12  6   8.4   4.6
 14500  -8.5  16.7  295   4  2   8.3   4.6 |  -7.7  18.1  290  10  5   8.4   4.6
 14000  -7.2  19.0  310   3  2   9.9   5.4 |  -6.5  20.3  300   8  4   8.5   4.7
 13500  -5.7  21.7  315   3  2  10.0   5.5 |  -5.2  22.6  310   7  3   8.5   4.7
 13000  -4.2  24.4  320   3  2  10.1   5.5 |  -4.0  24.8  325   6  3   8.6   4.7
 12500  -2.6  27.3  330   3  2  10.1   5.6 |  -2.7  27.1  335   6  3   8.6   4.7
 12000  -1.1  30.0  345   3  2  10.2   5.6 |  -1.4  29.5  360   5  3   8.5   4.7
 11750  -0.3  31.5  345   4  2  10.3   5.7 |  -0.8  30.6  005   6  3   8.3   4.6
 11500   0.4  32.7  345   4  2  10.2   5.6 |  -0.2  31.6  010   6  3   8.0   4.4
 11250   1.2  34.2  350   4  2  10.6   5.8 |   0.4  32.7  020   6  3   9.5   5.2
 11000   2.0  35.6  355   4  2  10.5   5.8 |   1.2  34.2  020   6  3   9.9   5.4
 10750   2.8  37.0  355   4  2   9.9   5.4 |   1.9  35.4  025   6  3   8.7   4.8
 10500   3.5  38.3  360   4  2  10.2   5.6 |   2.5  36.5  030   7  3   9.3   5.1
 10250   4.3  39.7  360   4  2   9.5   5.2 |   3.2  37.8  035   7  3   8.2   4.5
 10000   5.0  41.0  360   4  2   9.3   5.1 |   3.8  38.8  035   7  4   8.1   4.5
  9750   5.7  42.3  005   4  2  10.3   5.7 |   4.4  39.9  040   7  4   9.8   5.4
  9500   6.5  43.7  005   4  2  10.5   5.8 |   5.2  41.4  040   7  4  10.2   5.6
  9250   7.3  45.1  005   5  2  10.3   5.7 |   5.9  42.6  045   7  4   9.7   5.3
  9000   8.0  46.4  005   5  2  10.0   5.5 |   6.6  43.9  045   7  4   8.9   4.9
  8750   8.8  47.8  010   5  2  10.3   5.7 |   7.3  45.1  045   7  4   9.6   5.3
  8500   9.6  49.3  010   5  2  10.6   5.8 |   8.0  46.4  050   7  4  10.3   5.7
  8250  10.4  50.7  010   5  3  10.5   5.7 |   8.8  47.8  050   7  4  10.0   5.5
  8000  11.2  52.2  010   5  3  10.7   5.9 |   9.6  49.3  050   7  4  10.2   5.6
  7750  11.9  53.4  010   5  3   9.7   5.3 |  10.3  50.5  055   7  4   9.3   5.1
  7500  12.6  54.7  015   5  3   8.3   4.5 |  10.9  51.6  055   7  4   8.2   4.5
  7250  13.3  55.9  015   5  3  11.3   6.2 |  11.5  52.7  055   7  3   8.3   4.5
  7000  14.3  57.7  015   5  3  16.5   9.0 |  12.1  53.8  055   7  4   8.2   4.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.