Storm Event Survey

May 22, 2011

 
 
 
 
 

Joplin Tornado  Wentworth Tornado  |  Galena Tornado  |  Southwest City Tornado


Joplin Tornado Survey

Maximum EF-Scale  EF- 5
Est.  Max. Wind  In Excess of 200 mph
Path Length  22.1  Miles
Path Width  3/4 to 1 Mile
Fatalities  158
Injuries

1000+

Start Time  1734 PM
End Time  1812 PM
Approximate Beginning Pt. 1/2 mile SW of the intersection of JJ HWY  & and west 32nd street (Newton Road)
Approximate Ending Pt. 4.8 mi. NNE of Granby, Missouri
picture

Note - Tornado tracks and damage contours are based on individual damage points and estimates based on satellite imagery and may not be fully accurate down to the sub-neighborhood level.


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EF-1 EF-2 EF-3 EF-4 EF-5
         

 


…UPDATE ON THE JOPLIN DEVASTATING EF-5 TORNADO…

* DATE...22 May 2011
* MAXIMUM EF-SCALE RATING...EF-5
* ESTIMATED MAXIMUM WIND SPEED…In Excess of 200 MPH
* ESTIMATED MAXIMUM PATH WIDTH…3/4 to 1 Mile
* ESTIMATED DAMAGE PATH LENGTH...22.1 Miles
* APPROXIMATE START POINT…1/2 Mile Southwest of the Intersection of JJ Highway (South Central City Road) and West 32ND Street (Newton Road)
* APPROXIMATE END POINT…4.8 Miles North Northeast of Granby, MISSOURI
* START TIME…1734 P.M.
* END TIME…1812 P.M.
* FATALITIES…158
* INJURIES…1000+

Since the event, the National Weather Service Damage Assessment Team has had more time to collect additional information to better detail some of the most severe damage and assign lower end EF Scale rating to other portions of the Joplin tornado track.  However, the six or so mile track within the City of Joplin was by far the most intense and devastating.  The total path length was about 22.1 miles long.

This marks the first EF-5 tornado in southwest Missouri since records have been maintained for such events.  Our deepest thoughts and prayers continue for the excellent people of Joplin and to those no longer with us.  God bless Joplin.

Local and national print and electronic media groups in Joplin, Springfield, Kansas City and across the country have posted numerous stories, video and photos on their respective web pages concerning this very tragic event.  Also, much about this event has been captured through social media.

To arrive at an EF-5 Rating for a portion of the tornado track, it took the National Weather Service damage survey team a couple of days.  Additional time was also spent with several wind and structural engineers from various government and private organizations.  We would like to thank each group for their expert assistance.  A large volume of data and high resolution NOAA, Civil Air Patrol and other aerial flights have documented the damage from this event.  In the coming months, this event will be examined in much greater detail by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the American Society of Civil Engineers, Texas Tech University, and several other private engineering forms.

The violent nature and total destructions this tornado caused was indicative of past F and EF-5 tornadoes including the recent Southeast United States EF-5 events.  Some of the damage indicators used to rate the center portion of this tornado track from EF-2 to EF-5 wind speeds and resultant damage was the shear destruction of well-built homes and businesses swept from their foundation, crushed or pan-caked in place, or blown and piled into other destroyed structures and debris.  Numerous (over 15,000) vehicles of various sizes and weight including buses, tractor trailers and vans were tossed over 200 yards to several blocks, with some being crushed or rolled beyond recognition.  Some of the vehicles were compressed and wrapped around the few remaining trees, while some were rolled into balls.  Main steel roof support trusses were rolled like paper, and main support beams twisted or curved.  Portions of trees that remained standing were debarked and denuded.  In a parking lot west of the Home Depot, the asphalt was torn from its base with the chunks tossed eastward across the street.  Also, asphalt was ripped up from the Walmart parking lot.  Wind rowing or debris packing of heavy building and other materials were evident in several areas along the most destructive portions of the track.  There were also some interesting features such as a wooden chair with four legs embedded into an exterior wood and stucco wall, and a rubber hose impaled through a tree.

The EF-5 rating (greater than 200 mph wind speeds) was mainly arrived at by the total destruction of vehicles of various sizes and weight.  Some vehicles were tossed several blocks, and owners were never able to locate their vehicles.  Also, parking stops weighing over 300 pounds and re-barred into asphalt were tossed from 20 to 60 yards.  Other factors including the deflection, deformation and tossing of reinforced concrete porches and slabs; and the fact that the St. John’s hospital building structure and foundation were compromised and will need to be torn down, were probably caused by wind speeds at or exceeding 200 mph.

Over the coming months and years, there is much more to be examined in great detail by meteorologists, structural engineers, wind engineers, architects, city planners, builders and social scientists.  It is hoped that their efforts and findings are employed to make all communities weather ready with improved building codes, and to save lives.

The following damage assessment account of the tornado track and associated wind strength along various portions of the track are limited to the areas the survey team was able to access and examine before a final EF rating and wind strength determination were made, along with estimating the length and width of the tornado.  High resolution and Civil Air Patrol aerial surveys provided a complete look at each and every damage point, and also provided a complete view of the entire track.

Estimated through May 31, 2011, 6,954 homes were destroyed, 359 homes had major damage and 516 homes had minor damage.  Numerous small to large businesses were either destroyed or damaged.  Several public buildings were either destroyed or damaged.  This included several churches, elementary schools, high school, vocational school, two fire stations, a Walmart, Home Depot, large construction company with heavy equipment, nursing home, banks, a Dillon’s and other grocery stores, several gas station/convenient stores, Cummins generator building, electric power company sub-station, major cell and power transmission towers, and numerous one, two and three level apartment buildings.

The initial damage was located about one half mile southwest of the junction of JJ Highway (South Central City Road), and West 32nd Street (Newton Road) or near Wildwood Ranch where several large trees were toppled.  This initial portion of the track was rated an EF-0 and was located in Newton County.

Note…Storm chasers and spotters reported seeing multiple vortices rotating around the parent circulation near the beginning of this tornado.  This was documented by various video and photos from several locations, and through eye witness and spotter reports.  Their information and more scientific accounts concerning this tornado are posted at various web sites, YouTube, social media groups and through standard media outlets.  Once the tornado became rain wrapped, it would have been difficult to discern if multiple vortices continued to be present at the most intense portion of the tornado’s life cycle.

From the initial damage location the tornado became more intense and widened some as it reached EF-1 strength while moving east northeast to just south of the intersection of 32nd and South Alfalfa Street.  From this location to South Country Club Drive, numerous trees were damaged, toppled and uprooted, and power poles snapped off, and several out buildings were damaged just south and along 32nd Street.  Numerous trees continued to be damaged and uprooted along with power poles being snapped off as the tornado moved east along 32nd Street.

From just to the north of 32nd Street from South Ashwood Lane and east to Even Avenue, Heartland Avenue and South Country Club Drive, the tornado was about one quarter of a mile wide and produced EF-1 to low EF-2 damage to well-constructed brick and wood framed homes.  Roofs were removed and some homes destroyed with walls toppled and portions of the homes swept away or into other structures.  Damage to other homes and out buildings was also occurring just south of 32nd Street.

At about Catnip and 32nd, the tornado crossed 32nd Street and continued east northeast.  Once again, numerous trees and power poles were uprooted and snapped off.  On South Day Road, several homes were severely damaged.  From Iron Gate Road east to Schifferdecker Avenue, numerous well-built brick and wood framed homes had roofs and walls removed or totally destroyed, and vehicles of various sizes were blown or tumbled into homes.  Some of this damage was rated EF-2 to low end EF-3.  Just west of Schifferdecker Avenue, some low end EF-4 damage was evident to smaller well-built commercial buildings.

As the tornado crossed Schifferdecker Avenue just south of Sunset Drive, it widened more and increased in intensity.  The forward speed of the tornado through most of Joplin was about 20 to 25 miles per hour.  The tornado continued east northeast crossing 29th and Winfield Avenue.  Numerous homes, businesses and medical art buildings were destroyed by EF-4 to low end EF-5 wind speeds.  Numerous vehicles of various sizes and weight were tossed across or from parking lots and driveways.  Steel framed roofs were lifted and wrapped around trees and objects.  Some vehicles were crushed or flattened and wrapped around trees.  Concrete constructed walls were toppled and moved several feet or crushed into foundations.

By the time the tornado moved to 26th and McClelland Blvd., it was moving east and producing EF-4 and some EF-5 damage.  In one of the medical arts parking lot just west of St John’s Hospital, 200 to 300 pound concrete parking stops rebarred into the asphalt were lifted and tossed from 30 to 60 yards.  This was also the case in portions of the St John’s parking lot.  A large steel reinforced concrete step and floor structure leading to a completely destroyed medical art building was deflected upward several inches and cracked.  Steel trusses from some of the buildings were rolled up like paper, and concrete walls toppled.  Some steel main support beams were curved, twisted or distorted.  Debris piling or wind rowing of construction debris, vehicles and appliances were also evident along some portions of the main damage path.

EF-3 to EF-4 damage continued along the narrow core tornado track to just east of Rangeline Road.  Numerous residential homes, commercial buildings, apartments and other buildings along the outer portions of the core tornado track were rated from EF-1 to EF-3 damage.  EF-3 to low-end EF-5 wind damage continued to just east of Rangeline Road as the tornado approached the Duquesne area.

At St. Johns, numerous vehicles of various sizes and weight were tossed several hundred yards.  Some vehicles were crushed beyond recognition.  Some of the St. Johns medical staff and other people along the core tornado path could not locate their vehicles.  A large St. Johns medical vehicle was tossed across the parking lot and landed north of 26th Street.  Also, their life flight helicopter was blown off the roof and destroyed.

The St. Johns Hospital structure had just about every window blown out on three sides.  Once the wind was inside the building, it caused severe destruction of interior walls and ceilings on every floor.  A portion of the top roof was removed or heavily damaged.  It was reported by structural engineers that a portion of the hospital’s foundation and underpinning system were compromised.  The engineers determined the entire structure was not safe and would have to be demolished and replaced with a new structure.

North of St. Johns and 26th, Cunningham Park was leveled.  Large old hardwood trees were toppled or uprooted and debarked, and well-built structures destroyed.  Hundreds of homes north and east of this area were leveled, crushed or swept from their foundations.

 
East of McClelland Blvd. and along 26th, the tornado was now at full strength and over three quarters of a mile wide.  As the tornado moved east and slightly east northeast, it destroyed hundreds of homes, some crushed or pancaked, or swept from their foundations.  Steel reinforced concrete porches and driveways were lifted and tossed several yards.  Numerous vehicles were tossed into or over neighboring homes or across to other streets.  Many of those vehicles were rolled up and crushed.  This was the case along the rest of the primary damage path to just east of Rangeline Road.

Along most of the primary damage track, it was very common to find various size boards, limbs, and even small twigs and leaves embedded into wood and stucco walls.  In some cases, even cardboard was embedded sideways into stucco walls.  This was common at the high school.  At one spot, a two by four board was driven right through a concrete curb without breaking.

The wood framing from most homes disintegrated into small pieces.  This caused thousands of deadly projectiles.  Many open fields were covered with boards, limbs, twigs and other materials, including steel beams and fencing that were embedded deeply into the ground like tossed spears.  At one location, the four legs of a wooden chair had been embedded into a stucco wall without being damaged.

As the tornado shifted slightly east northeast along and north of 26th, it destroyed many commercial buildings.  The most intense track shifted north and east at 26th and Moffett Avenue.  St. Mary’s Church and school on 25th and Moffett Avenue were destroyed.  The only portion of the church remaining was the steel cross and a small portion of the metal roof.

The tornado crossed 25th and South Main Street causing total destruction to homes, single to three story apartments, and businesses.  The three story apartment complexes had their top two stories removed.  Other one and two story apartment complexes were partially leveled.

As the tornado reached the Franklin Technical Center and Joplin High School near 20th and Indiana, it continued to show EF-3 to EF-5 strength.  The newer section of the high school was destroyed and the outer walls of the older section were severely damaged.  The technical center was also destroyed.  A school bus had been tossed on top of the destroyed bus garage just to the west of the technical center.

Based on how the steel fence posts surrounding the high school’s baseball field were bent and positioned, the center of the tornado may have crossed this area.  East of the high school across Indiana, a large church was destroyed.

The main force of the three quarter mile wide tornado, centered between 26th and East 20th Streets, continued its total destruction of buildings.  A bank was totally destroyed with exterior concrete walls swept from the foundation.  The only thing left of the bank was the slightly damaged steel and concrete bank vault.  To the east of the bank, two story apartments were leveled into piles.  The Dillon’s grocery store had significant roof and exterior wall damage.  Over 30 people took shelter near the back of the store in one of the freezers.  Not one person was injured because of the quick thinking of the Assistant Store Manager and the fact he encouraged people from the parking lot, as well as in the store to take shelter.

The tornado continued eastward between 22nd and 20th Streets where it crossed Connecticut Avenue.  The severe damage continued to mount with hundreds more homes and businesses heavily damaged or destroyed.  When the tornado reached South Rangeline Road and 20th, one of Joplin’s main businesses sections, it destroyed several well-constructed buildings along with the Sports Academy, Walmart, Home Depot, the Pepsi Distribution center, Cummins generator building, a large construction firm located east of the Home Depot, and tore apart a large three story apartment complex east of Walmart.  Two large cell towers were toppled northward on top of a portion of the apartment complex.  A couple of the Walmart tractor trailers were tossed over 200 yards on top of the debris of what was left of the Pepsi Distribution center.

A parking lot west of the Home Depot, and a portion of the Walmart parking lot had scoured asphalt.  Vehicles parked in the Home Depot parking lot were tossed several hundred yards, one into the Home Depot.

From South Rangeline Road to South Duquesne Road, north and south along 20th Street, numerous warehouse style buildings and many more homes suffered moderate to severe damage or were destroyed.  Along this portion of the track, the tornado was weakening to EF-3 to low end EF-4 wind speeds and was just over one half mile wide.

Near South Duquesne Road to near the Interstate 44 and 249/71 junction, the tornado began turning right and moving southeast.  However, EF-2 to low end EF-3 damage was evident along 20th Street east to Markwalk Drive.  As it crossed Interstate 44, damage was related to high end EF-2 wind speeds.  Cars and trucks were blown off the interstate.  Interstate 44 was closed for several hours to remove the cars and trucks and provide medical care for those injured.

Across and east of Interstate 44 and to where the tornado lifted about 4.8 miles north northeast of Granby, Missouri, the tornado continued to damage homes, mobile homes, outbuildings and to topple trees.  At this last portion of the track, the tornado was about 500 yards wide and produced low end EF-1 to EF-0 damage.


For reference, The Enhanced Fujita Scale classifies tornadoes into the following categories:
EF0...WIND SPEEDS 65 TO 85 MPH
EF1...WIND SPEEDS 86 TO 110 MPH
EF2...WIND SPEEDS 111 TO 135 MPH
EF3...WIND SPEEDS 136 TO 165 MPH
EF4...WIND SPEEDS 166 TO 200 MPH
EF5...WIND SPEEDS GREATER THAN 200 MPH

To conclude, from the National Weather Service staff at WFO Springfield, Missouri, we offer our deepest condolences and heartfelt sympathy to all the people affected by the devastating event.  Our thoughts and prayers will be with those that lost their lives during and after this tragic event, and for their families.  I offer my deepest thanks and gratitude to emergency management, public safety officials, law enforcement and the many volunteers who are assisting the citizens of Joplin; many of them also affected by the tornado.

I also offer my thanks to all those that assisted our staff during several days of damage surveys.  The tragic 1974 Tornado Outbreak launched the research for new technology to better provide the public with more lead time on tornadoes.  For the most part, we are achieving that goal.  This, and the recent late April southeast U. S. tornado outbreak, will certainly launch another era of research, especially in the science of how people respond to warnings.

Bill Davis, MIC
WFO Springfield, Missouri


Wentworth Tornado Survey

EF-Scale  EF-2
Estimated Maximum Wind

 120 mph

Path Length  17 miles
Path Width  1/2 mile
 Falatities
 0
 Injuries
 0



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...EF-2 TORNADO CONFIRMED IN NEWTON AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES...

* DATE...22 MAY 2011
* BEGIN LOCATION...5 MILES EAST NORTHEAST OF DIAMOND
* END LOCATION...3 MILES NORTH OF MONETT
* ESTIMATED BEGIN TIME...610 PM
* ESTIMATED END TIME...640 PM
* MAXIMUM EF-SCALE RATING...EF-2
* ESTIMATED MAXIMUM WIND SPEED...120 MPH
* ESTIMATED PATH WIDTH...ONE HALF MILE
* PATH LENGTH...17 MILES
* FATALITIES...0
* INJURIES...0
* BEGIN LAT/LON...37.03 N / 94.23 W
* END LAT/LON...36.98 N / 93.93 W

* THIS PRELIMINARY INFORMATION WAS DETERMINED BY A NATIONAL
  WEATHER SERVICE SURVEY TEAM AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE PENDING
  FINAL REVIEW OF THE EVENT AND PUBLICATION IN NATIONAL WEATHER
  SERVICE STORM DATA.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION...

AN EF-2 TORNADO TOUCHED DOWN 5 MILES EAST NORTHEAST OF DIAMOND,
MO. THE TORNADO REMAINED ON THE GROUND FOR 17 MILES AND LIFTED
APPROXIMATELY 3 MILES NORTH OF MONETT. ALL ALONG THE
PATH...NUMEROUS TREES WERE UPROOTED WITH MANY BROKEN LIMBS. THREE
MILES WEST OF WENTWORTH...THREE MOBILE HOMES SUFFERED
CONSIDERABLE DAMAGE. ONE HOME WAS THROWN AND WRAPPED AROUND A
LARGE TREE. A SECOND SUFFERED COMPLETE COLLAPSE OF WALLS. A THIRD
SUFFERED PARTIAL UPLIFT OF ITS ROOF. NUMEROUS POWER POLES WERE
BLOWN DOWN ACROSS HIGHWAY J FROM 2 TO 4 MILES WEST OF WENTWORTH.
NUMEROUS TREES WERE ALSO UPROOTED ACROSS THE CITY OF WENTWORTH.
TWO MILES EAST OF WENTWORTH...A MOBILE HOME WAS DESTROYED AND
THROWN INTO AN ADJACENT MACHINE SHOP THAT WAS ALSO HEAVILY
DAMAGED. THREE MILES NORTH OF MONETT...3 BARNS WERE DESTROYED
WITH SIGNIFICANT ROOF DAMAGE TO A HOME AND SEVERAL UPROOTED
TREES. NO INJURIES OR FATALITIES WERE REPORTED ALONG THE PATH OF
THE STORM.

FOR REFERENCE...THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE CLASSIFIES TORNADOES
INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES:

EF0...WIND SPEEDS  65 TO  85 MPH.
EF1...WIND SPEEDS  86 TO 110 MPH.
EF2...WIND SPEEDS 111 TO 135 MPH.
EF3...WIND SPEEDS 136 TO 165 MPH.
EF4...WIND SPEEDS 166 TO 200 MPH.
EF5...WIND SPEEDS GREATER THAN 200 MPH.

 


 

Galena Tornado Survey

EF-Scale   EF-2
Estimated Maximum Wind  110 mph
Path Length  16 miles
Path Width  1/4 mile
 Fatalities
 0
 Injuries
 0


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 ...EF-2 TORNADO CONFIRMED IN CENTRAL STONE COUNTY INTO NORTHWEST
TANEY COUNTY MISSOURI...

UPDATED THE END POINT OF THIS TORNADO.

* DATE...MAY 22ND, 2011
* BEGIN LOCATION...3 MILES NORTHWEST OF GALENA MISSOURI
* END LOCATION...ABOUT 5 MILES NORTHEAST OF GALENA MISSOURI
* ESTIMATED BEGIN TIME...710 PM
* ESTIMATED END TIME...725 PM
* MAXIMUM EF-SCALE RATING...EF-2
* ESTIMATED MAXIMUM WIND SPEED...120 MPH
* ESTIMATED PATH WIDTH...200 YARDS
* PATH LENGTH...16 MILES
* FATALITIES...NONE
* INJURIES...NONE
* BEGIN LAT/LON...36.834866 N / -93.50083 W
* END LAT/LON...36.807011 N / -93.219894 W

* THIS PRELIMINARY INFORMATION WAS DETERMINED BY A NATIONAL
  WEATHER SERVICE SURVEY TEAM AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE PENDING
  FINAL REVIEW OF THE EVENT AND PUBLICATION IN NATIONAL WEATHER
  SERVICE STORM DATA.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION...

TORNADO DAMAGE WAS FIRST INDICATED ON CAVE SPRINGS ROAD...WHERE
TREES WERE SNAPPED AND TWISTED. EF-0 DAMAGE WAS INDICATED AT THIS
POINT. THE TORNADO THEN TRAVELED EAST..PARTIALLY DAMAGING A MOBILE
HOME AND DESTROYING ANOTHER MOBILE HOME ON HIGHWAY AA...NEAR THE
INTERSECTION WITH CAMP CLARK HILL ROAD. DAMAGE AT THIS LOCATION
WAS RATED EF-1. SEVERAL TURKEY BARNS WERE THEN DAMAGED ALONG HORSE
CREEK ROAD...WITH EF-2 DAMAGE NOTED. EF-0 DAMAGE TO TREES AND A
ROOF WERE NOTED ALONG JOHNSON ROWE ROAD. EF-1 DAMAGE OCCURRED
ALONG BASS HOLLOW ROAD...WHERE DAMAGE OCCURRED TO A HOUSE AND
OUTBUILDINGS. THE LAST DAMAGE LOCATION SURVEYED WAS JUST EAST OF
HIGHWAY 65 SOUTH OF THE COMMUNITY OF SADDLE BROOKE...WHERE EF-1 DAMAGE
WAS INDICATED TO TREES AND OUTBUILDINGS.

FOR REFERENCE...THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE CLASSIFIES TORNADOES
INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES:

EF0...WIND SPEEDS  65 TO  85 MPH.
EF1...WIND SPEEDS  86 TO 110 MPH.
EF2...WIND SPEEDS 111 TO 135 MPH.
EF3...WIND SPEEDS 136 TO 165 MPH.
EF4...WIND SPEEDS 166 TO 200 MPH.
EF5...WIND SPEEDS GREATER THAN 200 MPH.


Southwest City Tornado 

EF-Scale   EF-3
Estimated Maximum Wind  150-160 mph
Path Length  1.5 miles in Missouri
Path Width 1/4 mile
 Fatalities
 0
 Injuries
 2

 
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 ...EF-3 TORNADO CONFIRMED NEAR SOUTHWEST CITY IN MCDONALD COUNTY...

* DATE...22 MAY 2011
* MAXIMUM EF-SCALE RATING...EF-3
* ESTIMATED MAXIMUM WIND SPEED...150-160 MPH
* ESTIMATED PATH WIDTH...1/4 MILE
* ESTIMATED PATH LENGTH IN MISSOURI...1.5 MILES
* FATALITIES...0
* INJURIES...2

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION...

THIS IS A CONTINUATION OF THE TORNADO THAT DEVELOPED IN DELAWARE
COUNTY OKLAHOMA
...2.5 MILES WEST SOUTHWEST OF ZENA AT 652 PM. THE
TORNADO CROSSED STATELINE ROAD 2.8 MILES NORTH OF SOUTHWEST CITY
MISSOURI AT 726 PM AND DESTROYED A SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE AND
VEHICLES NEAR THE RESIDENCE. THE VEHICLES ROLLED UP TO 100 YARDS
AWAY FROM THE HOUSE. SEVERAL TREES WERE UPROOTED ALONG THE PATH OF
THE TORNADO AS IT TRACKED SOUTHEAST TOWARD CHICKEN HOUSES NEAR THE
INTERSECTION OF HIGHWAY 43 AND FARM ROAD. THE TORNADO LIFTED RIGHT
BEFORE REACHING HIGHWAY 43 2.2 MILES NORTH NORTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST
CITY.

FOR REFERENCE...THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE CLASSIFIES TORNADOES INTO
THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES:

EF0...WIND SPEEDS  65 TO  85 MPH.
EF1...WIND SPEEDS  86 TO 110 MPH.
EF2...WIND SPEEDS 111 TO 135 MPH.
EF3...WIND SPEEDS 136 TO 165 MPH.
EF4...WIND SPEEDS 166 TO 200 MPH.
EF5...WIND SPEEDS GREATER THAN 200 MPH.
 


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