The wind chill is based on the rate heat is lost from exposed skin by the combined effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, heat is carried away from the body at an accelerated rate, driving down the body temperature. Animals are also affected by wind chill and should likewise be protected from wind, cold and moisture.
Cold Temperatures can have dangerous effects on the body…
Frostbite: Frostbite is damage to body tissue caused by tissue being frozen. Frostbite causes a loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in extremities, such as fingers, toes, ears, and the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected, get medical help immediately! If you must wait for help, slowly re-warm affected areas. However, if the person is also showing signs of hypothermia, warm the body core before the extremities.
Hypothermia: A dangerously low body temperature is simply called hypothermia. Some warning signs to look for are: memory loss, uncontrollable shivering, disorientation, both mental and mobile incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness and apparent exhaustion. To detect hypothermia, take the persons temperature. If below about 95°F, immediately seek medical care. If medical care is not available, begin by warming the person slowly. Warm the body core first. If needed, wrap them in a warm blanket covering the head and neck where most body heat escapes. Do not give the person alcohol, drugs, coffee, or any hot beverage or food. Do not warm the extremities (arms and legs) first. This drives the cold blood to the heart and can lead to heart failure and death.